Liver Cirrhosis: Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis & Treatment

Liver cirrhosis is a severe medical condition characterized by extensive scarring and damage to the liver, often caused by chronic liver diseases. As the scar tissue replaces healthy liver tissue, blood flow becomes obstructed and the normal functioning of the liver is significantly impaired. 

Millions of people worldwide are affected by cirrhosis, making it essential to understand its symptoms, causes, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment options. 

Liver Cirrhosis Facts Overview

Symptoms of liver cirrhosis can range from mild to severe, with some individuals remaining asymptomatic for years before signs of liver damage become evident.

Early detection and diagnosis are crucial for managing this condition and preventing further progression. 

There are several causes of liver cirrhosis, including alcohol abuse, hepatitis, and fatty liver disease, each requiring a different treatment approach to preserve liver function and overall health.

Preventing liver cirrhosis involves adopting healthy lifestyle choices, such as abstaining from alcohol if you have liver disease and consuming a nutritious diet.

In cases where cirrhosis is already present, a combination of medical interventions and continued lifestyle adjustments can improve prognosis and longevity.

Early detection is crucial for effective management, with various causes requiring tailored treatment approaches.

Prevention and treatment involve a combination of healthy lifestyle choices and medical interventions to maintain liver health.

Symptoms of Liver Cirrhosis

Liver cirrhosis often presents with a variety of symptoms that can range from mild to serious. It is important to note that, in the early stages, many individuals might not experience any signs or symptoms until the liver is significantly damaged. 

One common symptom of liver cirrhosis is jaundice.

This condition is characterized by the yellowing of the skin and eyes due to the accumulation of bilirubin, a waste product that the liver normally processes and excretes.

Another prevalent symptom is fatigue – individuals with cirrhosis may feel tired or weak.

Along with fatigue, nausea and loss of appetite are also commonly observed in cirrhosis patients. This can lead to unplanned weight loss as a result of reduced food intake.

People with cirrhosis may also experience bruising and swelling. Because the liver plays a role in blood clotting, damage to the liver can result in a decreased ability to clot blood, causing increased bruising.

Swelling, particularly in the abdomen, can be a result of ascites – the buildup of fluid in the abdominal cavity. This can cause discomfort and even pain.

It is crucial to seek medical attention if these symptoms are experienced, as early diagnosis and intervention can help prevent further liver damage and improve the overall prognosis.

Causes of Liver Cirrhosis

Cirrhosis is a late-stage liver disease caused by various factors that damage the liver over time, leading to the formation of scar tissue and impaired liver function.

Alcohol-Related Cirrhosis

One of the most prevalent causes of cirrhosis is long-term, excessive consumption of alcohol. The liver metabolizes alcohol, but heavy drinking can overwhelm this process and lead to a build-up of toxic substances that cause liver damage.

Eventually, this damage leads to the formation of scar tissue, which replaces healthy liver tissue and impairs the liver’s ability to function properly. The quantity and longevity of a person’s alcohol intake increase the risk of developing alcohol-related cirrhosis.

Viral Hepatitis

Viral infections can cause inflammation of the liver, known as Hepatitis. The hepatitis may be either hepatitis A, hepatitis B, or hepatitis C. 

These viruses can cause similar symptoms, but their modes of transmission and potential for causing chronic liver disease differ significantly.

Chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis C are particularly dangerous, as they can lead to cirrhosis, liver failure, or liver cancer if left untreated. Treatment for hepatitis B and C may, however, help to prevent or slow the progression of liver damage, so early diagnosis is important.

Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a condition where excess fat accumulates in the liver, typically in individuals with obesity or type 2 diabetes.

Over time, NAFLD can also lead to cirrhosis, as the build-up of fat and inflammation in the liver eventually causes scar tissue formation. Maintaining a healthy weight, balanced diet, and regular exercise can help prevent NAFLD and reduce the risk of cirrhosis.

Other Causes

Other factors that can contribute to cirrhosis include autoimmune hepatitis, where the immune system attacks the liver, leading to inflammation and damage, and primary biliary cholangitis, a condition causing the bile ducts in the liver to become inflamed and damaged.

Hereditary disorders such as hemochromatosis; alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency; Wilson’s disease, and cystic fibrosis can also influence liver health and result in the development of cirrhosis. 

These conditions affect the liver’s ability to process and store specific substances, leading to the accumulation of toxic materials and, ultimately, liver damage.

Diagnosis of Liver Cirrhosis

The diagnosis of liver cirrhosis usually begins with understanding a patient’s medical history and  physical examination. Blood tests, imaging studies and biopsy are also options which can reveal signs of liver damage and help detect complications associated with cirrhosis.

Imaging Tests

Imaging tests play a crucial role in diagnosing liver cirrhosis. These tests help doctors assess liver structure and detect any irregularities, preventing the need for invasive procedures. Some common imaging tests used for diagnosing liver cirrhosis include the following:


This non-invasive test uses high-frequency sound waves to create images of the liver. It can help identify abnormalities in liver tissue and detect early signs of cirrhosis.

While an ultrasound can’t definitively diagnose cirrhosis, it can detect issues like abnormal liver size or nodules, suggesting liver damage.

CT scan 

In cases where an ultrasound cannot definitely confirm diagnosis, a computed tomography (CT) scan produces detailed cross-sectional images of the liver, which can reveal liver damage or scarring.

This technology offers more detailed images of the liver than an ultrasound, revealing texture changes, size, and nodules.


Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) utilizes magnetic fields and radio waves to create detailed visualizations of the liver. It can provide valuable information about its structure and function.

This procedure provides even more specificity about texture changes or lesions that suggest cirrhosis.


A liver biopsy is sometimes necessary to confirm the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis. During this procedure, a small specimen of liver tissue is collected for examination under a microscope.

A liver biopsy can be conducted in several methods, as below:

Percutaneous biopsy

A needle is inserted through the skin and into the liver to gather a tissue sample. This is the most frequently used method for liver biopsies.

Despite being invasive and holding an associated risk, a biopsy remains a definitive tool for diagnosing cirrhosis. Microscopic examination of the liver tissue can provide vital information about the extent of liver damage, inflammation, and fibrosis.

Transjugular biopsy

Collection of liver tissue sample by insertion of a catheter to a vein in the neck towards the liver, allowing access to a needle to collect the specimen.

This method is used when there are concerns about bleeding or other complications that might affect percutaneous biopsy.

Blood Tests

Blood tests may also be ordered to assess liver function and to check for indicators of liver malfunction, such as high bilirubin levels or certain enzymes.

These tests help determine the severity of liver cirrhosis and may guide treatment plans. Common blood tests related to liver function include:

Liver function tests

These measure various enzymes, proteins, and other substances produced by the liver, such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and bilirubin.

These tests can reflect or indicate liver damage or disease when they show abnormal readings or results.

Blood count

This test measures the number of white and red blood cells, platelets, and the hemoglobin concentration in your blood, providing information about your overall health.

Abnormal counts, such as low platelets or anemia, can suggest liver disease, as cirrhosis can affect the body’s ability to produce blood cells.

Prevention of Liver Cirrhosis

One of the most effective ways to prevent liver cirrhosis is by maintaining a healthy lifestyle and taking appropriate measures to protect your liver.

Below are some steps you can take for the prevention of liver cirrhosis.

Manage alcohol consumption

Alcohol is a common cause of liver damage and cirrhosis.

It is important to limit your alcohol intake or abstain entirely if you are at risk of liver disease. 

Maintain a balanced diet

Eating a balanced diet keeps your liver functioning optimally and prevents damage. Foods high in fiber, fruits, and vegetables are essential for liver health. 

Avoid consuming excessive amounts of fatty or sugary foods, as they can lead to obesity or diabetes.

Control obesity and diabetes

Obesity and diabetes can notably increase your risk of developing liver disease and cirrhosis.

Maintaining a healthy weight and managing blood sugar levels through regular exercise and a balanced diet are crucial factors in preventing liver damage.

Avoid viral hepatitis infections

Hepatitis A, B, and C are viral infections that cause liver damage and can lead to cirrhosis.

They can be prevented by getting vaccinations for hepatitis A and B, practicing safe sex, avoiding sharing needles, razors or toothbrushes. Hand hygiene helps reduce the risk of infection, especially when handling food or after contact with contaminated sources.

Regular check-ups and early detection

Regular visits to your doctor can help monitor your liver health and detect any potential issues early on.

Early diagnosis and treatment of liver disease can help prevent or manage the progression of cirrhosis.

Staying knowledgeable and making healthy choices regarding your diet, lifestyle, and healthcare will unquestionably contribute to reducing the risk of liver cirrhosis for most adults. 

Treatment for Liver Cirrhosis

Treatment for liver cirrhosis aims to halt progression, manage complications, and prevent additional damage to the liver. 

Medications and Supportive Care

Several medications can be prescribed to help manage symptoms and reduce complications. Some medications, such as beta-blockers and nitrates, can prevent varices (expanded blood cells) from bleeding, while diuretics can alleviate fluid buildup in the abdomen. 

It’s essential to closely follow your doctor’s recommendations and directions for medication use.

Aside from medications, supportive care plays a crucial role in managing cirrhosis. Ensuring regular check-ups with your healthcare provider helps detect any deterioration in liver function or any emerging complications. 

To treat cirrhosis, doctors often focus on managing the underlying cause, such as reducing alcohol consumption for alcohol-induced cirrhosis, or managing hepatitis infections.

For patients with a fatty liver, doctors may recommend weight loss through a healthy diet and exercise. 

Maintaining a healthy lifestyle, avoiding toxins and drugs that can further damage the liver, and ensuring immunization against hepatitis A and B are essential steps to prevent any worsening of the cirrhosis.

Surgery and Transplants

In severe cases of cirrhosis, surgical intervention may be necessary. One treatment option is a surgical procedure called TIPS (transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt) to help alleviate portal hypertension and bleeding varices. 

Additionally, liver cancer, a potential complication of cirrhosis, can require surgical removal of cancerous tissues or even local ablation therapies.

When liver function is severely compromised and other treatments are no longer effective, a liver transplant may be the last resort. In this procedure, a healthy liver from a deceased or living donor is used to replace the damaged liver.

Although liver transplants can greatly improve the quality of life for patients with end-stage cirrhosis, the procedure comes with potential risks, such as infection or organ rejection. 

It’s important to discuss all available treatment options with your healthcare provider to determine the best course of action for your specific situation.

Complications of Liver Cirrhosis

Liver cirrhosis can have multiple complications, some of which are potentially life-threatening.

Given how serious these complications can be, it is vital to be aware. Some of the potential complications are detailed below.

Portal Hypertension and Varices

Cirrhosis impedes the regular flow of blood through the liver, resulting in elevated blood pressure in the veins that supply the liver (portal hypertension).

As blood pressure rises in these veins, it forces blood to find alternative routes, often leading to the development of enlarged veins called varices, particularly in the esophagus and stomach. Varices can be prone to tearing, causing dangerous bleeding.

Liver Failure

As cirrhosis progresses, the liver’s ability to perform its essential functions, such as detoxifying the blood, producing bile, and producing proteins, declines. This can lead to liver failure, which is a life-threatening condition requiring urgent medical attention.

Patients with liver failure often experience symptoms such as jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes due to high levels of bilirubin), abdominal swelling, and confusion.

Hepatic Encephalopathy

Hepatic encephalopathy is another possible complication of cirrhosis, occurring when the liver’s reduced capacity to remove toxins from the bloodstream leads to a buildup of toxins in the brain.

This can cause a range of neurological symptoms, including confusion, disorientation, and even coma. Treatment usually includes addressing the underlying cause of liver disease, such as abstaining from alcohol or managing hepatitis.

Living With Liver Cirrhosis

Living with liver cirrhosis can be challenging, but with proper care and lifestyle changes, it’s possible to manage the condition and maintain a good quality of life. 

In the early stages of cirrhosis, known as compensated cirrhosis, liver function is still often preserved. However, as the disease progresses to decompensated cirrhosis, liver function declines, and complications arise.

Personalized Diet

One of the primary concerns for those living with cirrhosis is to maintain a healthy diet. A well-balanced diet provides essential nutrients and helps to maintain healthy liver cells. It’s important to consume adequate protein, as it plays a vital role in liver function.

However, excessive protein intake can cause confusion and other neurological symptoms in individuals with cirrhosis. It’s recommended to consume lean sources of protein like poultry, fish, and legumes, while limiting red meat.

Carbohydrates are also essential for liver function, as they help to store glycogen, which provides energy. Including complex carbohydrates like whole grains, fruits, and vegetables in the diet can help in managing cirrhosis.

Fats, on the other hand, should be consumed in moderation, with a focus on healthy fats like those found in avocados, nuts, and olive oil. 

Monitoring cholesterol levels and maintaining a healthy weight is crucial to prevent worsening of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, which could contribute to cirrhosis.

Managing Complications

Another aspect of living with liver cirrhosis is managing complications like high blood pressure, edema, and enlarged blood vessels in the spleen. 

Reducing salt intake, limiting alcohol consumption, and taking prescribed medications can help in managing these complications. 

Over-the-counter medications like acetaminophen should be taken cautiously and under the guidance of a healthcare provider, as they can affect liver function.

Infections can pose a significant risk to those with liver cirrhosis, so it’s essential to practice good hygiene and take recommended vaccinations. Antibiotics may be prescribed as a preventative measure for those at a higher risk of infection.

Checkup and Monitoring

Regular check-ups and monitoring of liver function are important to track disease progression and adjust treatment plans as needed. Diagnostic tests, such as a CT scan or blood tests, can help healthcare providers keep a close eye on liver health.

By adopting healthy habits and working closely with healthcare providers, individuals with liver cirrhosis can optimize their overall wellbeing and maintain a good quality of life.

Frequently Asked Questions

What are the early warning signs of liver cirrhosis?

Early warning signs of liver cirrhosis can include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, and weight loss.

More noticeable symptoms such as yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice), swelling in the legs and abdomen, and easy bruising or bleeding might develop as the disease advances. 

What causes cirrhosis of the liver?

Cirrhosis of the liver can be caused by various factors, including viral infections like hepatitis A, B, and C. 

Health conditions and lifestyle factors such as autoimmune liver diseases, diseases affecting the bile duct, as well as alcohol abuse, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease are among the common causes.

How is cirrhosis diagnosed?

Cirrhosis can be diagnosed through a combination of laboratory tests, imaging tests such as ultrasound and CT scan, and sometimes by obtaining a tissue sample from the liver through a biopsy.

The healthcare team may use a combination of various tests to both confirm the diagnosis and, in cases where the diagnosis is definitive, to assess the extent of the liver damage.

What are the stages of liver cirrhosis?

Liver cirrhosis evolves through four stages, each one representing a progressively severe level of liver damage. Stage 1, known as compensated cirrhosis without varices, is classified as mild cirrhosis. During this stage, the liver still functions reasonably despite the damage.

From Stage 2, the disease progresses to moderate cirrhosis where varices are present. Stage 3 is severe cirrhosis, with ascites indicating decompensation.

Stage 4 advances to bleeding varices, marking the most dangerous stage of the disease with critical liver dysfunction and serious complications.

How can liver cirrhosis be prevented?

Preventing liver cirrhosis involves maintaining a healthy lifestyle and minimizing exposure to risk factors.

This includes practicing safe sex and getting vaccinated against hepatitis (if applicable), avoiding excessive alcohol consumption, maintaining a healthy weight, and managing underlying medical conditions that can lead to liver damage, such as diabetes.

What are the treatment options for liver cirrhosis?

Treatment options for liver cirrhosis depend on the cause and severity of the condition. These may include lifestyle changes, medications to address specific symptoms or complications, and, in severe cases, liver transplantation.

It is crucial to consult with a healthcare professional to discuss the most appropriate treatment plan based on individual circumstances.